Rice is our most important cultivated plant, feeding more people than any other crop. It is an annual or short-lived perennial grass species native to Asia. Its domestication (i.e. cultivation and modification by humans) started 8 to 13 thousand years ago. Much of the world, especially Asia, has rice as its primary food source and rice production is critical for feeding the world. Rice requires warm, moist conditions for growth and is grown worldwide in tropical and warm temperate habitats. As is the case in all ‘cereal grains’ the ‘cereal’— the portion eaten — is a one-seeded fruit with the cells of a very thin fruit fused to those of the seed coat.

It is possible to grow rice at home, but you need to be realistic in your expectations. You won’t be able to harvest enough rice for more than a meal or two even if things go well. Growing a significant crop of rice requires a lot of space, water, and a long, warm growing season. In most areas, this means starting the rice indoors under grow lights.


Brown rice is rich in several vitamins and minerals:

Vitamin B1 (thiamine)
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
Fungal diseases of Rice: Bakanae Disease, Black Sheath Rot, Brown Spot, False Smut, Sheath Blight, Rice Blast
Bacterial diseases of Rice: Bacterial Leaf Blight, Bacterial Leaf Streak
Viral Diseases of Rice: Tungro, Grassy stunt, Ragged stunt,
Spiders, Beetles, Bugs, Damselfy, Crickets


Botanical Name Oryza sativa
Family Gramineae or Poaceae
Genus Oryza
Species sativa
Types Arborio Rice, Basmati Rice, Black Rice, Bomba Rice, Brown Rice, Jasmine Rice, Long Grain White Rice, Parboiled Rice, Sticky Rice, Sushi Rice

Planting Guide


It consists of 6 stamens with two-celled anthers and a pistol with one over and two stigmas. The pistil consists of one ovule.


Rice grain is the ripened ovary with lemma and palea firmly adhered to it.
The lemma and palea with other smaller components from the hull are removed in shelling rice for consumption.
The rice fruit is a caryopsis in which a single seed is fused with the wall of the ovary (pericarp).
The seed consists of an endosperm and an embryo. The embryo is very small and is found on the ventral side of the caryopsis. It contains plumule (embryonic leaves) and radicle (root).
On submergence in water or on sowing the radicle grows as a root and the plumule grows as a shoot.


Leaf: Each node of the culm bears a leaf. Each leaf consists of the following parts:

Leaf sheath: It originates from the node of culm and many times encloses it and sometimes even the next upper node and a part of the leaf sheath of the upper leaf.

Leaf blade: It is the upper expanded part of the leaf and begins at a node, where it is joined with a leaf sheath. At the joint, there is a thick collar.

Auricles: These are hairy appendages at the base of the leaf blade.

Ligules: It is a thin papery structure just above the auricles. Different parts of the leaf are of importance in identifying the varieties.

Flag leaf: It is the uppermost leaf just below the panicle. It is generally shorter in length and remains erect at an angle

Collect Seeds

Rice is ready to harvest when the seed head is yellow and dry. Bunch them together and hang them to dry for three to four weeks in a dry, well-ventilated place.

The next three steps—threshing, winnowing, and hulling the rice—are tedious to do manually and require specialized tools. Investing in a small-scale threshing machine is worth it if you get serious about growing your rice.

Soil Texture Sandy, loamy, and clay soils
Soil Drainage Mid-season drainage involves the removal of surface flood water from the rice crop for about seven days towards the end of tillering.
Soil Chemistry

5.5 to 7pH


Germination 3-5 days
Bloom 110–115 days

Temperature (Climate)
Temperature 12-32°C
Light full sun
Health Benefits

✓ Rice can stabilize your blood sugar levels
✓ Rice is gluten-free
✓ Rice is a powerhouse of energy
✓ Aids heart health
✓ Rice is very easy to digest
✓ Keeps the gut healthy